Salt-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction for determination of haloperidol in human plasma by LC-MS/MS

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haloperidol, LC-MS/MS, SALLME, TDM


Haloperidol is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Compared to other antipsychotics, it is widely used in developing countries due to its affordable price. Haloperidol has a narrow therapeutic range and variable pharmacokinetics; therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended. For this reason, in this study, an easily applicable, fast, selective, accurate, reliable, and economical LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of haloperidol in human plasma for use in TDM and also method was validated according to European Medicines Agency (EMA) Bioanalytical method validation guidelines. In the developed method, analyte and internal standard were extracted from plasma by salt-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (SALLME) technique and after that injected to the LC system. The limit of quantification of haloperidol was determined as 1 ng/ml. The calibration curve was validated between 1-15 ng/ml, with correlation coefficients >0.99. In addition, the developed method was used to determine drug concentration levels in the plasma of real patients.


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How to Cite

Al, S., Kul, A., & Sagirli, O. (2024). Salt-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction for determination of haloperidol in human plasma by LC-MS/MS. The European Chemistry and Biotechnology Journal, (1), 39–46.



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